Monopoly is a game franchise that has been around for decades. It began as a board game but now it is also a Video game. Its possible in the future it could even become a animated movie made by disney or pixar.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|The Fast-Dealing Property Trading Game|
|http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f9/Monopoly_pack_logo.pngThe Monopoly logo|
|Players||Some versions 2–6|
Other versions 2–12
|Setup time||5–10 minutes|
|Playing time||60–240 minutes (1–4 hours) [average]|
|Random chance||High (dice rolling, card drawing)|
|Skill(s) required||Negotiation, Resource management, Strategy|
Monopoly is an American-originated board game originally published by Parker Brothers. Subtitled "The Fast-Dealing Property Trading Game," the game is named after the economic concept of monopoly— the domination of a market by a single entity. It is produced by the United States game and toy company Hasbro. Players move around the game board buying or trading properties, developing their properties with houses and hotels, and collecting rent from their opponents, the ultimate goal being to drive them intobankruptcy.
- 2 Board
- 3 Equipment
- 4 Rules
- 5 Strategy
- 6 Related games
- 7 Media
- 8 Tournaments
- 9 Variants
- 10 Criticisms
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The history of Monopoly can be traced back to 1903, when an American woman named Elizabeth (Lizzie) J. Magie Phillips created a game through which she hoped to be able to explain the single tax theory of Henry George (it was intended as an educational tool to illustrate the negative aspects of concentrating land in private monopolies). Her game, The Landlord's Game, was self-published, beginning in 1906. A series of variant board games based on her concept were developed from 1906 through the 1930s that involved the buying and selling of land and the development of that land.
By 1933, a board game called Monopoly had been created which formed the basis of the game sold by Parker Brothers, beginning in 1935. Several people, mostly in the Midwestern United States and near the East Coast, contributed to the game's design and evolution, and this is when the game's design took on the 4 x 10 space-to-a-side layout and familiar cards were produced. By the 1970s, the idea that the game had been created solely by Charles Darrow had become popular folklore: it was printed in the game's instructions and even in the 1974 book The Monopoly Book: Strategy and Tactics of the World's Most Popular Game by Maxine Brady.
In 1936, Parker Brothers began licensing the game for sale outside of the United States. In 1941, the British Secret Intelligence Service had John Waddington Ltd., the licensed manufacturer of the game in the United Kingdom, create a special edition for World War II prisoners of war held by the Nazis. Hidden inside these games were maps, compasses, real money, and other objects useful for escaping. They were distributed to prisoners by Secret Service-created fake charity groups.
Economics professor Ralph Anspach published a game Anti-Monopoly in 1973, and was sued for trademark infringement by Parker Brothers in 1974. The case went to trial in 1976. Anspach won on appeals in 1979, as the 9th District Courtdetermined that the trademark Monopoly was generic, and therefore unenforceable. The United States Supreme Court declined to hear the case, allowing the appellate court ruling to stand. This decision was overturned by the passage of Public Law 98-620 in 1984. With that law in place, Parker Brothers and its parent companies (Hasbro) continue to hold valid trademarks for the game Monopoly.
A new wave of licensed products began in 1994, when Hasbro granted a license to USAopoly to begin publishing a San Diego Edition of Monopoly, which has since been followed by over 100 more. Other licensees include Winning Moves Games (since 1995) and Winning Solutions, Inc. (since 2000) in the United States. Winning Moves also has offices in the UK, France, Germany and Australia, and other licensees include AH Media in The Netherlands, and Bestman Games in Nigeria.
The Monopoly game board consists of forty spaces containing twenty-eight properties (twenty-two colored streets, four railway stations and two utilities), three Chance spaces, three Community Chest spaces, a Luxury Tax space, anIncome Tax space, and the four corner squares: GO, (In) Jail/Just Visiting, Free Parking, and Go to Jail.
There have been some changes to the board since the original. Not all of the Chance and Community Chest cards as printed in the 1935 patent were used in editions from 1936/1937 onwards, and graphics with the Mr. Monopoly character were added in that same timeframe. A graphic of a chest containing coins was added to the Community Chest spaces, as were the flat purchase prices of all of the properties. Traditionally, the Community Chest cards were yellow (although they sometimes were printed on blue stock) with no decoration or text on the back, and the Chance cards were orange, likewise with no text or decoration on the back.
Hasbro commissioned a major redesign to the US Standard Edition of the game in 2008. Among the changes: the colors of Mediterranean and Baltic Avenues (which changed from purple to brown), the colors of the GO square (which changed from red to black), the adoption of a flat $200 Income Tax (formerly the player's choice of $200 or 10% of their total holdings, which they may not calculate until after making their final decision), and increased $100 Luxury Tax amount (upped from $75). There were also changes to the Chance and Community Chest cards; for example, the "poor tax" and "grand opera opening" cards became "speeding fine" and "it is your birthday", respectively; though their effects remained the same, and the player must pay only $50 instead of $150 for the school tax. In addition, a player now gets $50 instead of $45 for sale of stock, and the Advance to Illinois Avenue card now has the added text concerning if you pass Go and collect $200. Similar color and amount changes are used in the U.S. Edition of the "Here and Now: World Edition" game, and are also used in the most recent versions of the McDonald's Monopoly promotion.
All of the Chance & Community Chest cards received a graphic upgrade in 2008 as part of the graphic refresh of the game. Mr. Monopoly's classic line illustration was also now usually replaced by renderings of a 3D Mr. Monopoly model. The backs of the cards have their respective symbols, with Community Chest cards in blue, and Chance cards in orange.
In the U.S. versions shown below, the properties are named after locations in (or near) Atlantic City, New Jersey. Atlantic City's Illinois Avenue was renamed Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. in the 1980s. St. Charles Place no longer exists, as the Showboat Casino Hotel was developed where it once ran.
Standard (American Edition) Monopoly game board layout as of September 2008[show]
Marvin Gardens, the leading yellow property on the board shown, is a misspelling of the original location name, Marven Gardens. The misspelling was introduced by Charles and Olive Todd, who taught the game to Charles Darrow, and passed on when their home-made Monopoly board was copied by Darrow and thence to Parker Brothers. The Todds also changed the Atlantic City Quakers' Arctic Avenue to Mediterranean, and shortened the Shore Fast Line to the Short Line. It was not until 1995 that Parker Brothers acknowledged this mistake and formally apologized to the residents of Marven Gardens for the misspelling.
Short Line refers to the Shore Fast Line, a streetcar line that served Atlantic City. The B&O Railroad did not serve Atlantic City. A booklet included with the reprinted 1935 edition states that the four railroads that served Atlantic Cityin the mid-1930s were the Jersey Central, the Seashore Lines, the Reading Railroad, and the Pennsylvania Railroad.
The Baltimore & Ohio (now part of CSX) was the parent of the Reading. There is a tunnel in Philadelphia where track to the south was B. & O. and track to the north is Reading. The Central of N.J. did not have track to Atlantic City but was the daughter of the Reading (and granddaughter of the B. & O.) Their track ran from the New York City area to Delaware Bay and some trains ran on the Reading-controlled track to Atlantic City.
The actual "Electric Company" and "Water Works" serving the city are respectively Atlantic City Electric Company (a subsidiary of Pepco Holdings) and the Atlantic City Municipal Utilities Authority.
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In the 1930s, John Waddington Ltd.(Waddingtons) was a firm of printers from Leeds that had begun to branch out into packaging and the production of playing cards. Waddingtons had sent the card game Lexicon to Parker Brothers hoping to interest them in publishing the game in the United States. In a similar fashion, Parker Brothers sent over a copy of Monopoly to Waddingtons early in 1935 before the game had been put into production in the United States.
The managing director of Waddingtons, Victor Watson, gave the game to his son Norman (who was head of the card games division) to test over the weekend. Norman was impressed by the game and persuaded his father to call Parker Brothers on Monday morning – transatlantic calls then being almost unheard of. This call resulted in Waddingtons obtaining a license to produce and market the game outside of the United States. Watson felt that for the game to be a success in the United Kingdom, the American locations would have to be replaced, so Victor and his secretary, Marjory Phillips, went to London to scout out locations. The Angel, Islington is not a street in London but an area of North London named after a coaching inn that stood on the Great North Road. By the 1930s, the inn had become a Lyons Corner House (it is now a Co-operative Bank). Some accounts say that Marjory and Victor met at the Angel to discuss the selection and celebrated the fact by including it on the Monopoly board. In 2003, a plaque commemorating the naming was unveiled at the site by Victor Watson's grandson, who is also named Victor.
The standard British board, produced by Waddingtons, was for many years the version most familiar to people in countries in the Commonwealth (except Canada, where the U.S. edition with Atlantic City-area names was reprinted), although local variants of the board are now also found in several of these countries.
In 1998, Winning Moves procured the Monopoly license from Hasbro and created new UK city and regional editions with sponsored squares. Winning Moves struggled to raise the sponsorship deals for the game boards, but did so eventually. A Nottingham Graphic Design agency, TMA, produced the visual design of the Monopoly packaging. Initially, in December 1998, the game was sold in just a few WHSmith stores, but demand was high, with almost fifty thousand games shipped in the 4 weeks leading up to Christmas. Winning Moves still produces new city and regional editions annually. Nottingham based designers Guppi have been responsible for the games' visual design since 2001.
The original income tax choice from the 1930s U.S. board is replaced by a flat rate on the UK board, and the $75 Luxury Tax space is replaced with the £100 Super Tax space, the same as the current German board. In 2008, the U.S. Edition was changed to match the UK and various European editions, including a flat $200 Income Tax value and an increased $100 Luxury Tax amount.
The cases wherein the game was produced under license by a national company, the £ (pound) was replaced by a $ (dollar) sign, but the place names were unchanged.
Starting in the UK in 2005, an updated version of the game, titled Monopoly Here and Now, was produced, replacing game scenarios, properties, and tokens with modern equivalents. Similar boards were produced for Germany and France. Variants of these first editions appeared with Visa-branded debit cards taking the place of cash – the later US "Electronic Banking" edition has unbranded debit cards.
The success of the first Here and Now editions caused Hasbro US to allow online voting for 26 landmark properties across the United States to take their places along the game board. The popularity of this voting, in turn, caused the creation of similar websites, and secondary game boards per popular vote to be created in the UK, Canada, France, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and other nations.
In 2006, Winning Moves Games released the Mega Edition, with a 30% larger game board and revised game play. Other streets from Atlantic City (eight, one per a color group) were included, along with a third "utility", the Gas Company. In addition, $1,000 denomination notes (first seen in Winning Moves' Monopoly: The Card Game) are included. Game play is further changed with bus tickets (allowing non-dice-roll movement along one side of the board), a speed die (itself adopted into variants of the Atlantic City standard edition; see below), skyscrapers (after houses and hotels), and train depots that can be placed on the Railroad spaces.
This edition was adapted for the UK market in 2007, and is sold by Winning Moves UK. After the initial US release, critiques of some of the rules caused the company to issue revisions and clarifications on their website.
In September 2006, the US edition of Monopoly Here and Now was released. This edition features top landmarks across the US. The properties were decided by votes over the Internet in the spring of 2006.
Monetary values are multiplied by 10,000 (e.g., one collects $2,000,000 instead of $200 for passing GO and pays that much for Income Tax, each player starts with $15,000,000 instead of $1,500, etc.). Also, the Chance and Community Chest cards are updated, the Railroads are replaced by Airports (Chicago O'Hare, Los Angeles International, New York City's JFK, and Atlanta'sHartsfield-Jackson), and the Utilities (Electric Company and Water Works) are replaced by Service Providers (Internet Service Provider and Cell Phone Service Provider). The houses and hotels are blue and silver, not green and red as in most editions of Monopoly. The board uses the traditional US layout; the cheapest properties are purple, not brown, and "Interest on Credit Card Debt" replaces "Luxury Tax". Despite the updated Luxury Tax space and the Income Tax space no longer using the 10% option, this edition uses paper Monopolymoney, and not an electronic banking unit like the Here and Now World Edition. However, a similar edition of Monopoly, the Electronic Banking edition, does feature an electronic banking unit and bank cards, as well as a different set of tokens. Both Here and Now and Electronic Banking feature an updated set of tokens from the Atlantic City edition.
It is also notable that three states (California, Florida and Texas) are represented by two cities each (Los Angeles and San Francisco, Miami and Orlando, and Dallas and Houston respectively). No other state is represented by more than one city (not including the airports). One landmark, Texas Stadium, has been demolished and no longer exists. Another landmark, Jacobs Field, still exists, but was renamed Progressive Field in 2008.
During World War II, the dice in the United Kingdom were replaced with a spinner because of a lack of materials.
All property deeds, houses, and hotels are held by the bank until bought by the players. A standard set of Monopoly pieces includes:
A deck of 32 Chance and Community Chest cards (16 Chance and 16 Community Chest) which players draw when they land on the corresponding squares of the track, and follow the instructions printed on them.
A title deed for each property is given to a player to signify ownership, and specifies purchase price, mortgage value, the cost of building houses and hotels on that property, and the various rent prices depending on how developed the property is. Properties include:
- 22 streets, divided into 8 color groups of two or three streets; a player must own all of a color group in order to build houses or hotels. Once achieved, color group properties must be improved or "broken down" evenly. See the section on Rules.
- 4 railroads, players collect $25 rent if they own one station, $50 for two, $100 for three and $200 for all four. These are usually replaced by railroad stations in non-U.S. editions of Monopoly.
- 2 utilities, rent is four times the dice value if one utility is owned, but ten times if both are owned. Hotels and houses cannot be built on utilities or stations. Some country editions have a fixed rent for utilities; for example, the Italian editions has a L. 2,000 ($20) rent if one utility is owned, or L. 10,000 ($100) if both are owned.
The purchase prices for the various properties vary from $60 to $400 on a U.S. Standard Edition set.
32 houses and 12 hotels made of wood or plastic (the original and currentDeluxe Edition have wooden houses and hotels; the current "base set" uses plastic buildings). Unlike money, houses and hotels have a finite supply. If no more are available, no substitute is allowed.Monopoly money
Older U.S. standard editions of the game included a total of $15,140 in the following denominations:
- 20 $500 bills (orange)
- 20 $100 bills (beige)
- 30 $50 bills (blue)
- 50 $20 bills (green)
- 40 $10 bills (yellow)
- 40 $5 bills (pink)
- 40 $1 bills (white)
Newer (September 2008 and later) U.S. editions instead provide a total of$20,580--30 of each denomination. The colors of some of the bills also changed: $10s are now blue instead of yellow, $20s are a brighter color green than before, and $50s are now purple instead of blue.
Each player begins the game with his or her token on the Go square, and $1,500 (or 1,500 of a localized currency) in play money (2,500 with the Speed Die). Prior to September 2008, the money was divided with greater numbers of $20 and $10 bill. Since then, the US version has taken on the British version's initial cash distributions.
|U.S. editions prior to 2008||U.S. editions since 2008 / British editions|
|2 x $500||2 × $/£500|
|2 x $100||4 × $/£100|
|2 x $50||1 × $/£50|
|6 x $20||1 × $/£20|
|5 x $10||2 × $/£10|
|5 x $5||1 × $/£5|
|5 x $1||5 × $/£1|
Although the US version is indicated as allowing eight players, the above cash distribution is not possible with all eight players since it requires 32 $100 bills and 40 $1 bills. However, the amount of cash contained in the game is enough for eight players with a slight alteration of bill distribution.
Pre-Euro German editions of the game started with 30,000 "Spielmark" in eight denominations (abbreviated as "M."), and later used seven denominations of the "Deutsche Mark" ("DM."). In the classic Italian game, each player receives ₤350,000 ($3500) in a two-player game, but ₤50,000 ($500) less for each player more than two. Only in a six-player game does a player receive the equivalent of $1,500. The classic Italian games were played with only four denominations of currency. Both Spanish editions (the Barcelona and Madrid editions) started the game with 150,000 in play money, with a breakdown identical to that of the American version.
Monopoly money is theoretically unlimited; if the bank runs out of money the players must make do with other markers, or calculate on paper. Additional paper money can be bought at certain locations, notably game and hobby stores, or downloaded from various websites and printed and cut by hand. (One such site has created a $1,000 bill; while a $1,000 bill can be found inMonopoly: The Mega Edition and Monopoly: The Card Game (both published by Winning Moves Games), this note is not a standard denomination for "classic" versions of Monopoly.)All twelve tokens from a pre-2008 copy of the U.S. Deluxe Edition Monopoly.
Each player is represented by a small metal token that is moved around the edge of the board according to the roll of two dice. The number of tokens and the tokens themselves have changed over the history of the game, with many appearing in special editions only, and some available with non-game purchases. As of 2013, eight tokens are included in standard edition games, including:
- Wheelbarrow (1937b edition)
- Old-style shoe (or boot)
- Scottie dog
- Top hat
- Cat (2013-onwards)
Previous tokens retired in the 1950s (replaced by the dog, man on horseback, and wheelbarrow):
Other retired tokens:
- Sack of money (1999–2007 editions; won a 1998 contest over a piggy bank and biplane)
- Man on horseback
- Iron (1935-2013 editions)
- Howitzer, better known as a cannon
Tokens exclusive to certain editions include the locomotive, which was available only in the Deluxe Edition of the game. An Australian edition of the game had a pewter koala in addition to the regular pieces, and the Canadian edition from 1982 did the same but with a beaver token. Tokens retired in 2008 and 2013 are still available in Monopoly: The Classic Edition. Tokens available without the game board included replicas of certain cars when purchased with licensed Johnny Lightning products, or a special Director's Chair token when purchased with Limited Edition DVD and Blu-ray copies of the documentaryUnder the Boardwalk: The MONOPOLY Story.
Many of the early tokens were created by companies such as Dowst Miniature Toy Company, which made metal charms and tokens designed to be used on charm bracelets. The battleship and cannon were also used briefly in the Parker Brothers war game Conflict (released in 1940), but after the game failed on the market, the premade pieces were recycled into Monopoly usage. Hasbro recently adopted the battleship and cannon for Diplomacy.
Early localized editions of the standard edition (including some Canadian editions, which used the U.S. board layout) did not include pewter tokens but instead had generic wooden pawns identical to those in Sorry!. Parker Brothers also acquired Sorry! in the 1930s. 1940s Monopoly sets in Britain had colored cardboard tokens that slotted onto small wooden blocks.
In 1998, a Hasbro advertising campaign asked the public to vote on a new playing piece to be added to the set, resulting in a "bag of money" token being added to the US edition. This piece was retired in 2007. In 2013, a similar promotional campaign was launched encouraging the public to vote on one of several possible new tokens to replace an existing one. The choices were a guitar, a diamond ring, a helicopter, a robot, or a cat. Unlike in 1998, one piece is to be retired, in this case the iron, and will be replaced by a new token, the cat. Both were chosen by a vote that ran on Facebook from January 8 to February 5, 2013. Shortly after the Facebook voting campaign, a limited edition golden token set was released exclusively at various national retailers, such as Target in the US and Tesco in the UK. This set contained the 2008-2013 tokens as listed above, and also contained all five of the iron's potential replacements: the cat, a guitar, a diamond ring, a helicopter and a robot.