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YouTube is a video-sharing website, created by three former PayPal employees in February 2005 and owned by Google since late 2006, on which users can upload, view and share videos.[4] The company is based in San Bruno, California, and uses Adobe Flash Video and HTML5technology to display a wide variety of user-generated video content, including movie clips, TV clips, and music videos, as well as amateur content such as video blogging, short original videos, and educational videos.

Most of the content on YouTube has been uploaded by individuals, although media corporations including CBS, the BBCVevoHulu, and other organizations offer some of their material via the site, as part of the YouTube partnership program.[5] Unregistered users can watch videos, while registered users can upload an unlimited number of videos. Videos considered to contain potentially offensive content are available only to registered users at least 18 years old. YouTube, LLC was bought by Google for US$1.65 billion in November 2006 and now operates as a Google subsidiary.[6]

ContentsEdit

  [hide*1 Company history

YouTube, LLC
[1]
[2]

Screenshot of YouTube's homepage

Type Subsidiary of Googlelimited liability company
Foundation date February 14, 2005
Headquarters 901 Cherry Ave, San Bruno,

California, United States

Area served Worldwide
Founder(s) Steve ChenChad HurleyJawed Karim
Key people Salar Kamangar (CEO)

Chad Hurley (Advisor)

Industry Internet
Parent Independent (2005–2006)

Google (2006–present)

Slogan(s) Broadcast Yourself (2005–2012)
Website YouTube.com

(see list of localized domain names)

Written in Python[1]
Alexa rank  3 (November 2013)[2]
Type of site Video hosting service
Advertising Google AdSense
Registration Optional (Only required for certain tasks such as uploading videos, viewing flagged videos, viewing flagged comments, liking videos, adding videos to playlists and commenting on videos)
Available in 54 language versions available through user interface[3]
Launched February 14, 2005
Current status Active

Company historyEdit

Main article: History of YouTube[3][4]From left to right: Chad HurleySteve Chen, and Jawed Karim

YouTube was founded by Chad HurleySteve Chen, and Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal.[7] Hurley had studied design atIndiana University of Pennsylvania, while Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.[8]

According to a story that has often been repeated in the media, Hurley and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, while Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was probably very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story that was very digestible".[9]

Karim said that the inspiration for YouTube came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was accidentally exposed during her performance. Karim could not easily find a video clip of the incident online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.[10] Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, and had been influenced by the website Hot or Not.[11][12]

YouTube began as a venture-fundYouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005, six months before the official launch in November 2005. The site grew rapidly, and in July 2006 the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day.[18] According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43 percent and more than 14 billion videos viewed in May 2010.[19]

YouTube says that roughly 60 hours of new videos are uploaded to the site every minute, and that around three quarters of the material comes from outside the U.S.[20][21][22] The site has 800 million unique users a month.[23] It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000.[24] Alexa ranks YouTube as the third most visited website on the Internet, behind Google and Facebook.[25]

The choice of the name www.youtube.com led to problems for a similarly named website, www.utube.com. The owner of the site, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being overloaded on a regular basis by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube has since changed the name of its website towww.utubeonline.com.[26][27] In October 2006, Google Inc. announced that it had acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock, and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006.[28]

Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing.[29] In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 revenue at $200 million, noting progress in advertising sales.[30] In January 2012, it was estimated that visitors to YouTube spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical U.S. citizen watching television.[23]

YouTube entered into a marketing and advertising partnership with NBC in June 2006.[31] In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGMLions Gate Entertainment, and CBS, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for US viewers called "Shows". The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBCFox, and Disney.[32][33] In November 2009, YouTube launched a version of "Shows" available to UK viewers, offering around 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners.[34] In January 2010, YouTube introduced an online film rentals service,[35] which is available only to users in the US, Canada and the UK as of 2010.[36][37] The service offers over 6,000 films.[38]

[5][6]YouTube's headquarters as of 2010 in San Bruno, California.

In March 2010, YouTube began free streaming of certain content, including 60 cricket matches of the Indian Premier League. According to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event.[39]

On March 31, 2010, the YouTube website launched a new design, with the aim of simplifying the interface and increasing the time users spend on the site. Google product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented: "We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter."[40] In May 2010, it was reported that YouTube was serving more than two billion videos a day, which it described as "nearly double the prime-time audience of all three major US television networks combined".[41] In May 2011, YouTube reported in its company blog that the site was receiving more than three billion views per day.[21] In January 2012, YouTube stated that the figure had increased to four billion videos streamed per day.[20]

In October 2010, Hurley announced that he would be stepping down as chief executive officer of YouTube to take an advisory role, and that Salar Kamangar would take over as head of the company.[42]

In April 2011, James Zern, a YouTube software engineer, revealed that 30 percent of videos accounted for 99 percent of views on the site.[43]

In November 2011, the Google+ social networking site was integrated directly with YouTube and the Chrome web browser, allowing YouTube videos to be viewed from within the Google+ interface.[44] In December 2011, YouTube launched a new version of the site interface, with the video channels displayed in a central column on the home page, similar to the news feeds of social networking sites.[45] At the same time, a new version of the YouTube logo was introduced with a darker shade of red, the first change in design since October 2006.[46]

In May 2013, YouTube launched a pilot program to began offering some content providers the ability to charge $0.99 per month or more for certain channels, but the vast majority of its videos would remain free to view.[47][48]

FeaturesEdit

Video technologyEdit

PlaybackEdit

Viewing YouTube videos on a personal computer requires the Adobe Flash Player plug-in to be installed on the browser. The Adobe Flash Player plug-in is one of the most common pieces of software installed on personal computers and accounts for almost 75% of online video material.[49]

In January 2010, YouTube launched an experimental version of the site that uses the built-in multimedia capabilities of web browsers supporting the HTML5 standard.[50] This allows videos to be viewed without requiring Adobe Flash Player or any other plug-in to be installed.[51][52] The YouTube site has a page that allows supported browsers to opt into the HTML5 trial. Only browsers that support HTML5 Video using the H.264 or WebM formats can play the videos, and not all videos on the site are available.[53][54]

YouTube experimented with Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH), which is an adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming solution optimizing the bitrate and quality for the available network.[55] Currently they are using Adobe Dynamic Streaming for Flash.[56]

UploadingEdit

All YouTube users can upload videos up to 15 minutes each in duration. Users who have a good track record of complying with the site's Community Guidelines may be offered the ability to upload videos up to 12 hours in length, which requires verifying the account, normally through a mobile phone.[57] When YouTube was launched in 2005, it was possible to upload long videos, but a ten-minute limit was introduced in March 2006 after YouTube found that the majority of videos exceeding this length were unauthorized uploads of television shows and films.[58][59] The 10-minute limit was increased to 15 minutes in July 2010.[60] File size is limited to 2 GB for uploads from the YouTube web page, or 20 GB if up-to-date browser versions are used.[61]

YouTube accepts videos uploaded in most container formats, including .AVI.MKV.MOV.MP4DivX.FLV, and .ogg and .ogv. These include video formats such as MPEG-4MPEGVOB, and.WMV. It also supports 3GP, allowing videos to be uploaded from mobile phones.[62] Videos with progressive scanning or interlaced scanning can be uploaded, but for the best video quality, YouTube suggests interlaced videos are deinterlaced prior to uploading. All the video formats on YouTube use progressive scanning.[63]

Quality and codecsEdit

YouTube originally offered videos at only one quality level, displayed at a resolution of 320x240 pixels using the Sorenson Spark codec (a variant of H.263),[64][65] with mono MP3 audio.[66] In June 2007, YouTube added an option to watch videos in 3GP format on mobile phones.[67] In March 2008, a high quality mode was added, which increased the resolution to 480x360 pixels.[68]

In November 2008, 720p HD support was added. At the time of the 720p launch, the YouTube player was changed from a 4:3 aspect ratio to a widescreen 16:9.[69] With this new feature, YouTube began a switchover to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as its default video compression format. In November 2009, 1080p HD support was added. In July 2010, YouTube announced that it had launched a range of videos in 4K format, which allows a resolution of up to 4096x3072 pixels.[70][71] However, it was lowered to 2048 x 1536 as of 2012.

YouTube videos are available in a range of quality levels. The former names of standard quality (SQ), high quality (HQ) and high definition (HD) have been replaced by numerical values representing the vertical resolution of the video. The default video stream is encoded in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC format, with stereo AAC audio.[72]

Comparison of YouTube media encoding options
itag value[1] Default container Video resolution Video encoding Video profile Video bitrate (Mbit/s) [2] Audio encoding Audio bitrate (kbit/s) [2]
5 FLV 240p Sorenson H.263 N/A 0.25 MP3 64
6 FLV 270p Sorenson H.263 N/A 0.8 MP3 64
13 3GP N/A MPEG-4 Visual N/A 0.5 AAC N/A
17 3GP 144p MPEG-4 Visual Simple 0.05 AAC 24
18 MP4 270p/360p H.264 Baseline 0.5 AAC 96
22 MP4 720p H.264 High 2-2.9 AAC 192
34 FLV 360p H.264 Main 0.5 AAC 128
35 FLV 480p H.264 Main 0.8-1 AAC 128
36 3GP 240p MPEG-4 Visual Simple 0.17 AAC 38
37 MP4 1080p H.264 High 3–5.9 AAC 192
38 MP4 3072p H.264 High 3.5-5 AAC 192
43 WebM 360p VP8 N/A 0.5 Vorbis 128
44 WebM 480p VP8 N/A 1 Vorbis 128
45 WebM 720p VP8 N/A 2 Vorbis 192
46 WebM 1080p VP8 N/A N/A Vorbis 192
82 MP4 360p H.264 3D 0.5 AAC 96
83 MP4 240p H.264 3D 0.5 AAC 96
84 MP4 720p H.264 3D 2-2.9 AAC 152
85 MP4 520p H.264 3D 2-2.9 AAC 152
100 WebM 360p VP8 3D N/A Vorbis 128
101 WebM 360p VP8 3D N/A Vorbis 192
102 WebM 720p VP8 3D N/A Vorbis 192
120[3] FLV 720p AVC Main@L3.1 2 AAC 128
133 MP4 240p  ?? N/A  ?? N/A[4] N/A
134 MP4 360p  ?? N/A  ?? N/A[4] N/A
135 MP4 480p  ?? N/A  ?? N/A[4] N/A
136 MP4 720p  ?? N/A  ?? N/A[4] N/A
137 MP4 1080p  ?? N/A  ?? N/A[4] N/A
139 MP4 N/A N/A[4] N/A N/A  ?? low
140 MP4 N/A N/A[4] N/A N/A  ?? medium
141 MP4 N/A N/A[4] N/A N/A  ?? high
160 MP4 144p  ? N/A  ?? N/A[4] N/A

^ [1] itag is an undocumented parameter used internally by YouTube to differentiate between quality profiles. Until December 2010, there was also a URL parameter known as fmt that allowed a user to force a profile using itag codes. ^ [2] Approximate values based on statistical data; actual bitrate can be higher or lower due to variable encoding rate. ^ [3] itag 120 is for live streaming and has metadata referring to "Elemental Technologies Live". ^ [4] itags 133-137 and 160 are for video-only streams. itags 139-141 are for, respectively, low-, medium-, and high-bitrate audio-only streams.[73] [74][75][76][77]

3D videosEdit

In a video posted on July 21, 2009,[78] YouTube software engineer Peter Bradshaw announced that YouTube users can now upload 3D videos. The videos can be viewed in several different ways, including the common anaglyph (cyan/red lens) method which utilizes glasses worn by the viewer to achieve the 3D effect.[79][80][81] The YouTube Flash player can display stereoscopic content interleaved in rows, columns or a checkerboard pattern, side-by-side or anaglyph using a red/cyan, green/magenta or blue/yellow combination. In May 2011, an HTML5 version of the YouTube player began supporting side-by-side 3D footage that is compatible with Nvidia 3D Vision.[82]

Content accessibilityEdit

YouTube offers users the ability to view its videos on web pages outside their website. Each YouTube video is accompanied by a piece of HTML that can be used to embed it on any page on the Web.[83] This functionality is often used to embed YouTube videos in social networking pages and blogs. Users wishing to post a video discussing, inspired by or related to another user's video are able to make a "video response". On August 27, 2013, YouTube announced that it would remove video responses for being an underused feature.[84] Embedding, rating, commenting and response posting can be disabled by the video owner.[85]

YouTube does not usually offer a download link for its videos, and intends for them to be viewed through its website interface.[86] A small number of videos, such as the weekly addresses by President Barack Obama, can be downloaded as MP4 files.[87] Numerous third-party web sites, applications and browser plug-ins allow users to download YouTube videos.[88] In February 2009, YouTube announced a test service, allowing some partners to offer video downloads for free or for a fee paid through Google Checkout.[89] In June 2012, Google sent cease and desist letters threatening legal action against several websites offering online download and conversion of YouTube videos.[90] In response, Zamzar removed the ability to download YouTube videos from its site.[91] The default settings when uploading a video to YouTube will retain a copyright on the video for the uploader, but since July 2012 it has been possible to select a Creative Commons license as the default, allowing other users to reuse and remix the material if it is free of copyright.[92]

PlatformsEdit

Some smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube videos, dependent on the provider and the data plan. YouTube Mobile was launched in June 2007, using RTSP streaming for the video.[93]Not all of YouTube's videos are available on the mobile version of the site.[94]

Since June 2007, YouTube's videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple's preferred video standard, H.264, a process that took several months. YouTube videos can be viewed on devices including Apple TViPod Touch and the iPhone.[95] In July 2010, the mobile version of the site was relaunched based on HTML5, avoiding the need to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for use with touch screen controls.[96] The mobile version is also available as an app for the Android platform.[97][98] In September 2012, YouTube launched its first app for the iPhone, following the decision to drop YouTube as one of the preloaded apps in the iPhone 5 and iOS 6 operating system.[99]

TiVo service update in July 2008 allowed the system to search and play YouTube videos.[100] In January 2009, YouTube launched "YouTube for TV", a version of the website tailored for set-top boxes and other TV-based media devices with web browsers, initially allowing its videos to be viewed on the PlayStation 3 and Wii video game consoles.[101][102] In June 2009, YouTube XL was introduced, which has a simplified interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen.[103] YouTube is also available as an app on Xbox Live.[104] On November 15, 2012, Google launched an official app for the Wii, allowing users to watch YouTube videos from the Wii channel.[105] An app is also available for Wii U, and videos can be viewed on the Wii U Internet Browserusing HTML5.[106] According to GlobalWebIndex, YouTube was used by 35% of smartphone users between April and June 2013, making it the third most used app.[107]

LocalizationEdit

On June 19, 2007, Google CEO Eric Schmidt was in Paris to launch the new localization system.[108] The interface of the website is available with localized versions in 61 countries, one territory (Hong Kong) and a worldwide version.[109][110]

The YouTube interface suggests which local version should be chosen on the basis of the IP address of the user. In some cases, the message "This video is not available in your country" may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content.[145]

The interface of the YouTube website is available in 54 language versions, including Catalan and Slovene, which do not have local channel versions.[3]

Access to YouTube was blocked in Turkey between 2008 and 2010, following controversy over the posting of videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material offensive to Muslims.[146][147] In October 2012, a local version of YouTube was launched in Turkey, with the domain youtube.com.tr. The local version is subject to the content regulations found in Turkish law.[148]

In March 2009, a dispute between YouTube and the British royalty collection agency PRS for Music led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach agreement on a licensing deal. The dispute was resolved in September 2009.[149] In April 2009, a similar dispute led to the removal of premium music videos for users in Germany.[150]

April FoolsEdit

YouTube has featured an April Fools prank on the site on April 1 of every year since 2008:

  • 2008: All the links to the videos on the main page were redirected to Rick Astley's music video "Never Gonna Give You Up", a prank known as "Rickrolling".[151][152]
  • 2009: When clicking on a video on the main page, the whole page turned upside down. YouTube claimed that this was a new layout.[153]
  • 2010: YouTube temporarily released a "TEXTp" mode, which translated the colors in the videos to random upper case letters. YouTube claimed in a message that this was done in order to reduce bandwidth costs by $1 per second.[154]
  • 2011: The site celebrated its "100th anniversary" with a "1911 button" and a range of sepia-toned silent, early 1900s-style films, including "Flugelhorn Feline", a parody of Keyboard Cat.[155]
  • 2012: Clicking on the image of a DVD next to the site logo led to a video about "The YouTube Collection", an option to order every YouTube video for home delivery on DVDvideocassette,Laserdisc, or Betamax tapes. The spoof promotional video promised "It's the complete YouTube experience completely offline."[156]
  • 2013: YouTube teamed up with newspaper satire company The Onion to claim that the video sharing website was launched as a contest which had finally come to an end, and would announce a winner of the contest when the site went back up in 2023. A video of two presenters announcing the nominees streamed live for twelve hours.[157]

Social impactEdit

Main article: Social impact of YouTube

While other video hosting websites had been launched before YouTube in 2005 (including Metacafe in 2003 and Vimeo in 2004), YouTube was conceived to be, in the words of Jawed Karim, a video version of the rating site Hot or Not. Karim commented that Hot or Not was a site "where anyone could upload content that everyone else could view. That was a new concept because up until that point, it was always the people who owned the website who would provide the content." In December 2006, Time magazine wrote: "YouTube is to video browsing what a Wal-MartSupercenter is to shopping: everything is there, and all you have to do is walk in the door."[9]

An early example of the social impact of YouTube was the success of The Bus Uncle video in 2006. It shows a heated conversation between a youth and an older man on a bus in Hong Kong, and was discussed widely in the mainstream media.[158] Another YouTube video to receive extensive coverage is guitar,[159] which features a performance of Pachelbel's Canon on an electric guitar. The name of the performer is not given in the video. After it received millions of views The New York Times revealed the identity of the guitarist as Lim Jeong-hyun, a 23-year-old from South Korea who had recorded the track in his bedroom.[160] This video has since been removed from YouTube.[161]

"Charlie Bit My Finger", which was uploaded on May 22, 2007, is a viral video that holds the record for the most views for a YouTube video that is not a professional music video, with over 500 million views.[162][163][164] The clip features two English brothers, with one-year-old Charlie biting the finger of his brother Harry, aged three.[165] In Time's list of YouTube's 50 greatest viral videos of all time, "Charlie Bit My Finger" was ranked at number one.[166]

YouTube was awarded a 2008 Peabody Award and cited for being "a 'Speakers' Corner' that both embodies and promotes democracy".[167][168]

In December 2009, Entertainment Weekly placed YouTube on its end-of-the-decade "best-of" list, describing it as: "Providing a safe home for piano-playing cats, celeb goof-ups, and overzealous lip-synchers since 2005."[169]

The most viewed video on YouTube is the music video of the song "Gangnam Style" by PSY.[170] It was added to the site on July 15, 2012, and became the first YouTube video to receive over 1 billion views on December 21, 2012.[171] The video has inspired numerous parodies.[172]

Music industryEdit

In May 2011, YouTube launched its own weekly chart, the YouTube 100, which aims to track the popularity of music videos on the site.[173][174] In 2013, the Billboard charts began including online streams in its Top 100 lists, allowing the popularity of YouTube videos to influence the position of a song in the charts.[175] YouTube and Billboard held talks for nearly two years regarding the proposed changes.[176]

As of 2013, the following music charts utilize YouTube views as part of its ranking methodology:

Besides official music videos, views from user-generated clips utilizing authorized audio are also factored into the Billboard charts.[177]

 ==Revenue sources==

The vast majority of videos on YouTube are free to view and supported by advertising.[47] In May 2007, YouTube launched its Partner Program, a system based on AdSense which allows the uploader of the video to share the revenue produced by advertising on the site.[178] YouTube typically takes 45 percent of the advertising revenue from videos in the Partner Program, with 55 percent going to the uploader.[179] There are over a million members of the YouTube Partner Program.[180]

In May 2013, YouTube introduced a trial scheme of 53 subscription channels with prices ranging from $0.99 to $6.99 a month.[181] The move was seen as an attempt to compete with other providers of online subscription services such as Netflix and Hulu.[47]

Community policyEdit

YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site's features. Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse, shock videos, content uploaded without the copyright holder's consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behaviour.[182] Despite the guidelines, YouTube has faced criticism from news sources for content in violation of these guidelines.

Copyrighted materialEdit

At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a screen with the message "Do not upload any TV shows, music videos, music concerts or advertisements without permission, unless they consist entirely of content that you created yourself".[183] Despite this advice, there are still many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material on YouTube. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted.[184][185]

Organizations including ViacomMediaset, and the English Premier League have filed lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done too little to prevent the uploading of copyrighted material.[186][187][188] Viacom, demanding $1 billion in damages, said that it had found more than 150,000 unauthorized clips of its material on YouTube that had been viewed "an astounding 1.5 billion times". YouTube responded by stating that it "goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works".[189]

During the same court battle, Viacom won a court ruling requiring YouTube to hand over 12 terabytes of data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site. The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which called the court ruling "a setback to privacy rights".[190][191] In June 2010, Viacom's lawsuit against Google was rejected in asummary judgment, with U.S. federal Judge Louis L. Stanton stating that Google was protected by provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Viacom announced its intention to appeal the ruling.[192]

On April 5, 2012, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reinstated the case, allowing Viacom's lawsuit against Google to be heard in court again.[193]

In August 2008, a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. that copyright holders cannot order the removal of an online file without first determining whether the posting reflected fair use of the material. The case involved Stephanie Lenz from Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, who had made a home video of her 13-month-old son dancing to Prince's song "Let's Go Crazy", and posted the 29-second video on YouTube.[194]

In the case of Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, professional singer Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment for the wrongful use of copyright takedown notices on YouTube.[195] He asserted seven causes of action, and four were ruled in Smith's favor.[196]

In April 2012, a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users. The performance rights organization GEMA argued that YouTube had not done enough to prevent the uploading of German copyrighted music. YouTube responded by stating:

We remain committed to finding a solution to the music licensing issue in Germany that will benefit artists, composers, authors, publishers and record labels, as well as the wider YouTube community.[197]

In April 2013, it was reported that Universal Music Group and YouTube have a contractual agreement that prevents content blocked on YouTube by a request from UMG from being restored, even if the uploader of the video files a DMCA counter-notice. When a dispute occurs, the uploader of the video has to contact UMG.[198][199]

Content IDEdit

In June 2007, YouTube began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright. The system was regarded by Google CEO Eric Schmidt as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom, which alleged that YouTube profited from pirated content.[200] The system, which became known as Content ID, creates an ID File for copyrighted audio and video material, and stores it in a database. When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found.[201]

When this occurs, the content owner has the choice of blocking the video to make it unviewable, tracking the viewing statistics of the video, or adding advertisements to the video. YouTube describes Content ID as "very accurate in finding uploads that look similar to reference files that are of sufficient length and quality to generate an effective ID File".[201] Content ID accounts for over a third of the monetized views on YouTube.[202]

An independent test in 2009 uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube, and concluded that while the system was "surprisingly resilient" in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible.[203] The use of Content ID to remove material automatically has led to controversy in some cases, as the videos have not been checked by a human for fair use.[204] If a YouTube user disagrees with a decision by Content ID, it is possible to fill in a form disputing the decision.[205] YouTube has cited the effectiveness of Content ID as one of the reasons why the site's rules were modified in December 2010 to allow some users to upload videos of unlimited length.[206]

Controversial contentEdit

Main articles: Criticism of Google#YouTube and Censorship by Google#YouTube

YouTube has also faced criticism over the offensive content in some of its videos. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is prohibited by YouTube's terms of service.[182] Controversial content has included that pertaining to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster, in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989.[207][208]

YouTube relies on its users to flag the content of videos as inappropriate, and a YouTube employee will view a flagged video to determine whether it violates the site's terms of service.[182] In July 2008, the Culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was "unimpressed" with YouTube's system for policing its videos, and argued that "proactive review of content should be standard practice for sites hosting user-generated content". YouTube responded by stating:

We have strict rules on what's allowed, and a system that enables anyone who sees inappropriate content to report it to our 24/7 review team and have it dealt with promptly. We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube page to make this process as easy as possible for our users. Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly.[209] (July, 2008)

In October 2010, U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner urged YouTube to take down from its website videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki, saying that by hosting al-Awlaki's messages, "We are facilitating the recruitment of homegrown terror".[210] British security minister Pauline Neville-Jones commented: "These Web sites would categorically not be allowed in the U.K. They incite cold-blooded murder, and as such are surely contrary to the public good." In November 2010, YouTube removed from its site some of the hundreds of videos featuring al-Awlaki's calls to jihad. It stated that it had removed videos that violated the site's guidelines prohibiting "dangerous or illegal activities such as bomb-making, hate speech and incitement to commit violent acts", or came from accounts "registered by a member of a designated foreign terrorist organization".[211] In December 2010, YouTube added "promotes terrorism" to the list of reasons that users can give when flagging a video as inappropriate.[212]

User commentsEdit

Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. In 2006, Time praised Web 2.0 for enabling "community and collaboration on a scale never seen before", and added that YouTube "harnesses the stupidity of crowds as well as its wisdom. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred".[213] The Guardian in 2009 described users' comments on YouTube as:

Juvenile, aggressive, misspelled, sexist, homophobic, swinging from raging at the contents of a video to providing a pointlessly detailed description followed by a LOL, YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile debate and unashamed ignorance – with the occasional burst of wit shining through.[214]

In September 2008, The Daily Telegraph commented that YouTube was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet", and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, "a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts".[215] The Huffington Post noted in April 2012 that finding comments on YouTube that appear "offensive, stupid and crass" to the "vast majority" of the people is hardly difficult.[216]

To curtail spam, YouTube does not allow comments containing URLs.[217] However, as a replacement for the video response feature, the YouTube creators have announced that they will experiment with the inclusion of links to videos in comments.[84]

Censorship and filteringEdit

Main article: Censorship of YouTube

Several countries have blocked access to YouTube.

  • YouTube has been blocked in China[218][219] since October 18, 2007.[220][221]
  • Morocco shut down access to YouTube in 2008.[222]
  • Thailand blocked YouTube between 2006 and 2007 due to offensive videos relating to King Bhumibol Adulyadej.[223][224]
  • Turkey blocked access to YouTube between 2008 and 2010 after controversy over videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.[225][226][227] The block was lifted briefly but reimposed in November 2010.[228]
  • On December 3, 2006, Iran temporarily blocked access to YouTube, along with several other sites, after declaring them as violating social and moral codes of conduct. The YouTube block came after a video was posted online that appeared to show an Iranian soap opera star having sex.[229] The block was later lifted and then reinstated after Iran's 2009 presidential election.[230]
  • On February 23, 2008, Pakistan blocked YouTube because of "offensive material" towards the Islamic faith, including display of the Danish cartoons of the prophet Muhammad.[231] This led to a near global blackout of the YouTube site for around two hours, as the Pakistani block was inadvertently transferred to other countries. Pakistan lifted its block on February 26, 2008.[232]Many Pakistanis circumvented the three-day block by using virtual private network software.[233] In May 2010, following the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day, Pakistan again blocked access to YouTube, citing "growing sacrilegious content".[234]
  • On January 24, 2010, Libya blocked access to YouTube after it featured videos of demonstrations in the Libyan city of Benghazi by families of detainees who were killed in Abu Salim prison in 1996, and videos of family members of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi at parties. The blocking was criticized by Human Rights Watch.[235]
  • In September 2012, several countries with a large Muslim population, including AfghanistanBangladeshPakistan, and Sudan blocked access to YouTube following controversy over a 14 minute trailer for the film Innocence of Muslims which had been posted on the site.[236][237][238][239][240] Russia also blocked access to YouTube over the same controversy.[241] The trailer was blamed for violent protests in Libya and Egypt. YouTube stated that "This video – which is widely available on the Web – is clearly within our guidelines and so will stay on YouTube. However, given the very difficult situation in Libya and Egypt we have temporarily restricted access in both countries."[242][243]
  • Departments of education in some regions have blocked student access to YouTube, with some state education departments in Australia citing the inability to determine what sort of video material might be accessed.[244]

See alsoEdit

Listen to this article (info/dlMENU  0:00 This audio file was created from a revision of the "YouTube" article dated 2011-03-26, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)More spoken articles[7]{| style="font-size:11px;line-height:12px;max-width:175px;background-position:initialinitial;background-repeat:initialinitial;" |- valign="middle" | style="text-align:center;"|[8] | style="padding:0px0.2em;vertical-align:middle;font-style:italic;font-weight:bold;"|Companies portal |- valign="middle" | style="text-align:center;"|[9] | style="padding:0px0.2em;vertical-align:middle;font-style:italic;font-weight:bold;"|Internet portal |- valign="middle" | style="text-align:center;"|[10] | style="padding:0px0.2em;vertical-align:middle;font-style:italic;font-weight:bold;"|San Francisco Bay Area portal |}

General:

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

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  2. Jump up^ "Youtube.com Site Info"Alexa Internet. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
  3. Jump up to:a b "YouTube language versions". Retrieved January 15, 2012.
  4. Jump up^ Hopkins, Jim (October 11, 2006). "Surprise! There's a third YouTube co-founder"USA Today. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
  5. Jump up^ Weber, Tim (March 2, 2007). "BBC strikes Google-YouTube deal". BBC. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
  6. Jump up^ "Google buys YouTube for $1.65 billion". NBC News.
  7. Jump up^ Graham, Jefferson (November 21, 2005). "Video websites pop up, invite postings"USA Today. Retrieved July 28, 2006.
  8. Jump up^ "YouTube: Sharing Digital Camera Videos"University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
  9. Jump up to:a b Cloud, John (December 16, 2006). "The Gurus of YouTube"Time Magazine. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
  10. Jump up^ "Surprise! There's a third YouTube co-founder"USA Today. October 11, 2006. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
  11. Jump up^ "The YouTube Gurus". Time.com. December 25, 2006. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
  12. Jump up^ Earliest surviving version of the YouTube websiteWayback Machine, April 28, 2005. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
  13. Jump up^ Miguel Helft and Matt Richtel (October 10, 2006). "Venture Firm Shares a YouTube Jackpot"The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
  14. Jump up^ Sara Kehaulani Goo (October 7, 2006). "Ready for Its Close-Up"Washington Post. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
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  24. Jump up^ Carter, Lewis (April 7, 2008). "Web could collapse as video demand soars"The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved April 21, 2008.
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  26. Jump up^ Zappone, Christian (October 12, 2006). "Help! YouTube is killing my business!". CNN. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
  27. Jump up^ Blakely, Rhys (November 2, 2006). "Utube sues YouTube"The Times (London). Retrieved November 29, 2008.
  28. Jump up^ Reuters (November 14, 2006). "Google closes $A2b YouTube deal"The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved November 29, 2008.
  29. Jump up^ Yen, Yi-Wyn (March 25, 2008). "YouTube Looks For the Money Clip". Retrieved March 26, 2008.
  30. Jump up^ Hardy, Quentin; Evan Hessel (May 22, 2008)."GooTube"Forbes Magazine. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  31. Jump up^ Knowledge@wharton. "Online Video: The Market Is Hot, but Business Models Are Fuzzy". Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  32. Jump up^ Brad Stone and Brooks Barnes (November 10, 2008)."MGM to Post Full Films on YouTube"The New York Times. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
  33. Jump up^ Staci D. Kramer (April 30, 2009). "It's Official: Disney Joins News Corp., NBCU In Hulu; Deal Includes Some Cable Nets"paidContent.org. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
  34. Jump up^ Allen, Katie (November 19, 2009). "YouTube launches UK TV section with more than 60 partners"The Guardian(London). Retrieved December 13, 2009.
  35. Jump up^ Miguel Helft (January 20, 2010). "YouTube takes a small step into the film rental market"The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
  36. Jump up^ Shiels, Maggie (January 21, 2010). "YouTube turns to movie rental business"BBC News. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
  37. Jump up^ "YouTube to offer film rentals in the UK". BBC News. October 7, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  38. Jump up^ Tsotsis, Alexia (May 9, 2011). "Google Partners With Sony Pictures, Universal And Warner Brothers For YouTube Movies". techcrunch.com. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
  39. Jump up^ Sweney, Mark (January 20, 2010). "Cricket: IPL goes global with live online deal"The Guardian (London). Retrieved February 6, 2010.
  40. Jump up^ "YouTube redesigns website to keep viewers captivated". AFP. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
  41. Jump up^ Chapman, Glenn. "YouTube serving up two billion videos daily". AFP. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
  42. Jump up^ "Hurley stepping down as YouTube chief executive". AFP. October 29, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
  43. Jump up^ Whitelaw, Ben (April 20, 2011). "Almost all YouTube views come from just 30% of films"The Daily Telegraph(London). Retrieved April 21, 2011.
  44. Jump up^ Whitney, Lance (November 4, 2011). "Google+ now connects with YouTube, Chrome"CNET. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
  45. Jump up^ "YouTube's website redesign puts the focus on channels". BBC. December 2, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  46. Jump up^ Cashmore, Pete (October 26, 2006). "YouTube Gets New Logo, Facelift and Trackbacks – Growing Fast!". Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  47. Jump up to:a b c "YouTube launches pay-to-watch subscription channels"BBC News. May 9, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
  48. Jump up^ Nakaso, Dan (May 7, 2013). "YouTube providers could begin charging fees this week"Mercury News. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  49. Jump up^ Fildes, Jonathan (October 5, 2009). "Flash moves on to smart phones". BBC. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
  50. Jump up^ "YouTube HTML5 Video Player"YouTube. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
  51. Jump up^ "Watch this YouTube Video without the Flash Player". Retrieved November 30, 2009.
  52. Jump up^ "HTML5 YouTube viewer: close, but not quite there". Retrieved November 30, 2009.
  53. Jump up^ "YouTube HTML5 Video Player". Retrieved January 21, 2010.
  54. Jump up^ Shankland, Stephen (May 19, 2010). "Google tries freeing Web video with WebM"CNET.com. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
  55. Jump up^ Streaming Media and RTOS: MPEG-DASH Support in Youtube
  56. Jump up^ YouTube: Google I/O 2013 - Adaptive Streaming for You and YouTube on YouTube
  57. Jump up^ Video length for uploading YouTube Help. Retrieved April 17, 2012.
  58. Jump up^ Fisher, Ken. "YouTube caps video lengths to reduce infringement". Ars Technica. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
  59. Jump up^ "Account Types: Longer videos". YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
  60. Jump up^ Lowensohn, Josh (July 29, 2010). "YouTube bumps video limit to 15 minutes". CNET. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
  61. Jump up^ "Uploading large files and resumable uploading". YouTube. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
  62. Jump up^ "Video Formats: File formats". YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
  63. Jump up^ "Getting Started: File formats". YouTube. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
  64. Jump up^ Tinic Uro (August 13, 2005). "The quest for a new video codec in Flash 8". Retrieved January 27, 2011. "We went this route before with Sorenson Spark which is an incomplete implementation of H.263 and it bit us badly when trying to implement certain solutions."
  65. Jump up^ Adobe Systems Incorporated (2010). "Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification Version 10.1" (PDF). p. 72. Retrieved January 27, 2011. "Sorenson H.263"
  66. Jump up^ "Market Demand for Sorenson Media's Sorenson Spark Video Decoder Expands Sharply". Sorenson Media. June 2, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
  67. Jump up^ "YouTube Mobile goes live". June 17, 2007. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
  68. Jump up^ "YouTube Blog – YouTube Videos in High Quality". YouTube. March 24, 2008. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
  69. Jump up^ "YouTube videos go HD with a simple hack"CNET. November 20, 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
  70. Jump up^ "What's bigger than 1080p? 4K video comes to YouTube". Official YouTube Blog. July 9, 2010. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  71. Jump up^ Lowensohn, Josh (July 9, 2010). "YouTube now supports 4k-resolution videos"CNET. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  72. Jump up^ "YouTube to get high-def 1080p player". CNET. November 29, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
  73. Jump up^ Macall, Fred (2013). "YTCrack v0.24b". Retrieved August 25, 2013.
  74. Jump up^ McFarland, Patrick (May 24, 2010). "Approximate YouTube Bitrates". Retrieved August 12, 2010.
  75. Jump up^ "Bigger and Better: Encoding for YouTube 720p HD". December 2008. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
  76. Jump up^ Greenfield, Trevor (November 22, 2009). "YouTube's 1080p – Failure Depends on How You Look At It". Retrieved August 12, 2010.[dead link]
  77. Jump up^ Biggs, Billy (November 12, 2009). "1080p HD Is Coming to YouTube". Retrieved August 12, 2010.
  78. Jump up^ "YouTube in 3D". YouTube. July 21, 2009. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  79. Jump up^ Marquit, Miranda (July 23, 2009). "YouTube in 3D?".Physorg. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  80. Jump up^ Dsouza, Keith (July 20, 2009). "YouTube 3D Videos".Techie Buzz. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  81. Jump up^ Sobti, Kshitij (July 21, 2009). "YouTube adds a dimension, 3D goggles not included"thinkdigit. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  82. Jump up^ Ryan Smith (May 26, 2011). "YouTube Adds Stereoscopic 3D Video Support (And 3D Vision Support, Too)".AnandTech. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
  83. Jump up^ "YouTube embedded video guide".
  84. Jump up to:a b "So long, video responses... Next up: better ways to connect"YouTube Creators Blog. August 27, 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
  85. Jump up^ YouTube. "Control comments and video responses". Retrieved August 28, 2013.
  86. Jump up^ "Terms of Use, 5.B". YouTube. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
  87. Jump up^ CNET (January 16, 2009). "(Some) YouTube videos get download option". Retrieved January 17, 2009.
  88. Jump up^ Milian, Mark (February 19, 2009). "YouTube looks out for content owners, disables video ripping"Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 21, 2009.
  89. Jump up^ Rao, Leena (February 12, 2009). "YouTube Hopes To Boost Revenue With Video Downloads"Washington Post. Retrieved February 19, 2009.
  90. Jump up^ Torrentfreak (June 19, 2012). "Google Threatens To Sue Huge YouTube MP3 Conversion Site". Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  91. Jump up^ Zamzar (June 12, 2012). "Downloading YouTube videos – no longer supported". Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  92. Jump up^ "Here's your invite to reuse and remix the 4 million Creative Commons-licensed videos on YouTube".YouTube Official Blog. July 25, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  93. Jump up^ "YouTube Mobile".
  94. Jump up^ Google Operating System (June 15, 2007). "Mobile YouTube". Retrieved January 17, 2009.
  95. Jump up^ "YouTube Live on Apple TV Today; Coming to iPhone on June 29"Apple. June 20, 2007. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
  96. Jump up^ Zibreg, Christian (July 8, 2010). "Goodbye Flash: YouTube mobile goes HTML5 on iPhone and Android". Retrieved January 9, 2012.
  97. Jump up^ Kincaid, Jason (July 7, 2010). "YouTube Mobile Goes HTML5, Video Quality Beats Native Apps Hands Down". Retrieved January 9, 2012.
  98. Jump up^ Google Mobile Blog (December 8, 2010). "YouTube 2.1 App Now Available on Android Market". Retrieved January 9, 2012.
  99. Jump up^ "New YouTube iPhone app preempts iOS6 demotion". The Guardian. September 11, 2012. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  100. Jump up^ "TiVo Getting YouTube Streaming Today"Gizmodo. July 17, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
  101. Jump up^ "YouTube video comes to Wii and PlayStation 3 game consoles"Los Angeles Times. January 15, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
  102. Jump up^ "Coming Up Next... YouTube on Your TV". YouTube Blog. January 15, 2009. Archived from the original on November 29, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
  103. Jump up^ "Experience YouTube XL on the Big Screen"YouTube Blog. YouTube. June 2, 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
  104. Jump up^ "Xbox Live Getting Live TV, YouTube & Bing Voice Search"Mashable. June 6, 2011. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  105. Jump up^ "YouTube app wanders onto Nintendo Wii days before Wii U launch". Techradar.com. November 15, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2012..
  106. Jump up^ "Just for U: YouTube arrives on Wii U". Youtube.com. November 22, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012..
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  109. Jump up to:a b "YouTube launches in Argentina". September 9, 2010. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
  110. Jump up^ "YouTube content locations". Retrieved September 10, 2010.
  111. Jump up^ "Presentan hoy YouTube México" [YouTube México launched today] (in Spanish). El Universal. October 11, 2007. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
  112. Jump up^ "中文上線 – YouTube 香港中文版登場!". Stanley5. October 17, 2007. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
  113. Jump up^ "YouTube台灣網站上線 手機版再等等"ZDNet. October 18, 2007. Retrieved January 2, 2012.[dead link]
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  115. Jump up^ Nicole, Kristen (November 6, 2007). "YouTube Canada Now Live"Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  116. Jump up^ Ostrow, Adam (November 8, 2007). "YouTube Germany Launches"Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  117. Jump up^ "YouTube Now in Russian". Kommersant Moscow. November 14, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  118. Jump up^ Williams, Martyn (January 23, 2008). "YouTube Launches Korean Site"PC World. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  119. Jump up^ Joshi, Sandeep (May 8, 2008). "YouTube now has an Indian incarnation"The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  120. Jump up^ Bokuvka, Petr (October 12, 2008). "Czech version of YouTube launched. And it's crap. It sucks"The Czech Daily Word (Wordpress.com). Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  121. Jump up^ Launch video unavailable when YouTube opens up in Sweden October 23, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
  122. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h "YouTube Launches Local Version For Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and Yemen". ArabCrunch. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
  123. Jump up^ Jidenma, Nmachi (September 1, 2011). "Google launches YouTube in Kenya"The Next Web. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  124. Jump up^ Nod, Tam (October 13, 2011). "YouTube launches 'The Philippines'". The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
  125. Jump up^ "YouTube launches Singapore site"TODAY. October 20, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2011.[dead link]
  126. Jump up^ YouTube launches localized website for ColombiaDecember 1, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  127. Jump up^ Google Launches YouTube Uganda December 2, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
  128. Jump up^ Google to Launch YouTube Nigeria Today December 7, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
  129. Jump up^ Google launches YouTube Chile March 19, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  130. Jump up^ Google Launches Hungarian YouTube[dead link] March 12, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  131. Jump up^ YouTube Launches Local Domain For Malaysia March 22, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  132. Jump up^ YouTube Peru Launched, Expansion continues March 27, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
  133. Jump up^ "YouTube Launches Indonesian Version", June 15, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  134. Jump up^ "Google launches YouTube in Ghana", June 22, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  135. Jump up^ "YouTube launches local portal in Senegal", July 16, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
  136. Jump up^ "YouTube's Turkish version goes into service", October 1, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
  137. Jump up^ Tarasova, Maryna (December 13, 2012). "YouTube приходить в Україну! (YouTube comes in Ukraine!)". Ukraine: Google Ukraine Blog. (Ukrainian)
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  139. Jump up^ Sormunen, Vilja (February 6, 2013). "YouTube Launches in the Nordics". Nordic: KLOK. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
  140. Jump up^ "YOUTUBE LAUNCHED IN NORWAY". Norway: TONO. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  141. Jump up^ "YouTube goes Swiss". Swiss: swissinfo. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  142. Jump up^ "YouTube.at since Thursday online". Austria: Wiener Zeitung. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  143. Jump up^ "Youtube România se lansează într-o săptămână". Romania: ZF.ro. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  144. Jump up^ "Google lança versão lusa do YouTube". Portugal: Luso Noticias. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  145. Jump up^ "Learn More: Video not available in my country". YouTube Help. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
  146. Jump up^ "Turkey lifts two-year ban on YouTube". BBC News. October 30, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
  147. Jump up^ Danforth, Nick (July 31, 2009). "Turks censor YouTube censorship"San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
  148. Jump up^ "YouTube cedes to Turkey and uses local Web domain". CNET. October 2, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
  149. Jump up^ Barnett, Emma (September 3, 2009). "Music videos back on YouTube in multi-million pound PRS deal"The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved September 3, 2009.
  150. Jump up^ "Now YouTube stops the music in Germany"The Guardian (London). April 1, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2009.
  151. Jump up^ "YouTube RickRolls Users". TechCrunch.com. March 31, 2008. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
  152. Jump up^ "YouTube RickRolls April Fools In". RyanSpoon.com. March 31, 2008. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
  153. Jump up^ "April fools: YouTube turns the world up-side-down". searchcowboys.com. April 1, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
  154. Jump up^ "TEXTp saves YouTube bandwidth, money". YouTube. April 1, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
  155. Jump up^ Richmond, Shane (April 1, 2011). "YouTube goes back to 1911 for April Fools' Day"The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved April 1, 2011.
  156. Jump up^ Owen, Pamela; Keneally, Meghan (April 1, 2012). "Simon Cowell's bromance, the self-driving Nascar and Hungry Hippos for iPad... the best April Fools' gags"The Daily Mail (London). Retrieved April 2, 2012.
  157. Jump up^ Quan, Kristene (April 1, 2013). "WATCH: YouTube Announces It Will Shut Down"Time.com. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
  158. Jump up^ Bray, Marianne. "Irate HK man unlikely Web hero". CNN. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
  159. Jump up^ "guitar". YouTube. December 20, 2005. Retrieved August 3, 2009.[dead link]
  160. Jump up^ Heffernand, Virginia (August 27, 2006). "Web Guitar Wizard Revealed at Last"The New York Times. Retrieved July 2, 2007.
  161. Jump up^ Lim's version of Canon Rock now produces the message "This video has been removed as a violation of YouTube's policy against spam, scams and commercially deceptive content. Sorry about that."[1][dead link] The video was uploaded by the user guitar90, who was not Lim and had found the video on www.mule.co.kr. The YouTube version received around 92 million views before being removed in mid-2011.[2] Other YouTube users have since mirrored Lim's video, also without permission.
  162. Jump up^ "Charlie bit my finger – again !". YouTube. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
  163. Jump up^ Chittenden, Maurice (November 1, 2009). "Harry and Charlie Davies-Carr: Web gets taste for biting baby"The Times (London). Retrieved November 20, 2009.
  164. Jump up^ Stack, Brittany (March 21, 2010). "Meet YouTube's 224 million girl, Natalie Tran"¨The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved March 21, 2010.
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